return to Case Studies
  
Courtesy of International Law Society & Amy Porges

  

DRAFT 11/3/99



Cases on international trade policy and law - a bibliography

This is a sorted list of cases available from various business schools and public policy schools, on subjects relevant to teaching a class in international trade law. Cases appear only once even if they are relevant to a number of subjects, so it is worth reading through the entire list. The abstracts are from the sites where the cases are available and do not represent any third-party evaluation. 


The cases are marked with the following codes:

HBS Harvard Business School: http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu/hbsp/samples/ 

Pew Pew Cases: http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/isd/files/pew.htm

KSG Kennedy School of Government: http://www.ksgcase.harvard.edu/ 

INSEAD available via the European Case Clearinghouse (ECCH) at http://www.ecch.cranfield.ac.uk/ 

IESE International Graduate School of Management, University of Navarra, Barcelona and Madrid; available via ECCH and HBS


Some of these sites offer downloadable inspection samples of some of their cases.


Other possible sources of cases: additional UK, US and Canadian schools which distribute via ECCH; also the World Bank Institute collection of cases at http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/cases/caseindex.html. 

The Electronic Hallway, at http://www.hallway.org/ has a substantial collection of cases in public policy available for use at no cost by educational institutions. However, the Hallway's stock does not appear to include anything relevant for a trade course.  

Trade economics/international business 3 

Trade policy generally 4
Trade politics 7
Market access 7
Trade sanctions 8
Import relief/safeguards/textiles/VERs 8
Antidumping/CVD 12
Regional trade/Canada/NAFTA 14
Japan 17
Developing countries 18
Trade & Environment 20
Trade and human rights 22
Agricultural trade 23
High tech - general 25
High tech - semiconductors 27
Aircraft trade 30
Steel 31
Intellectual property 32
Investment 34
Trade finance, taxes 37
Countertrade 38
   
Trade and competition/international antitrust 38
Trade economics/international business

Economic Gains from Trade: Comparative Advantage - HBS

Author(s): Kennedy, Robert E.; Koehn, Nancy 

Description: How nations trade and whether they benefit from it are two of the oldest and most important questions in political economy. In the 170 years since David Ricardo formally developed the theory of comparative advantage, it has become one of the principles most widely accepted among professional economists. Despite this wide acceptance in the professional community, the basics of international trade are still poorly understood by many policy makers and casual commentators. This note introduces the theory of comparative advantage. It is divided into four sections. The first presents a short history of the concepts behind comparative advantage. The second develops a simple model with several examples to demonstrate the gains that result from trade between nations. The third briefly covers several extensions of the simple model. Finally, two traditional objections to free trade are reviewed. A rewritten version of an earlier note. 

Subject(s): Government & business; International trade; Macroeconomics; National competitiveness 
Type: Note Publication
Date: 11/25/96 
Product Number: 796183 
Length: 7p 
List Price: $5.50



Kennedy and the Balance of Payments - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Austin, Jane K. 

Description: In 1960, the United States was facing a balance of payments problem. Gold reserves were being drained, American products were losing competitiveness, and the dollar was under attack. This case analyzes the roots of this problem, provides an opportunity to discuss in depth balance of payments accounting, and allows students to explore various solutions to balance of payments difficulties. May be used with Balance of Payments: Accounting and Presentation. 

Subject(s): Balance of payments; EC single market; Economic policy; International trade; Monetary policy; National competitiveness Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States 
Case Time Frame Start: 1950 
Case Time Frame End: 1960 
Supplemental Material(s): Supplement (Note), (9-384-006), 1p, by David B. Yoffie, Jane K. Austin; Supplement (Note), (9-385-243), 1p, by David B. Yoffie, Jane K. Austin; Teaching Note, (5-385-241), 13p, by David B. Yoffie 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 7/15/85 
Product Number: 383073 
Length: 16p 
List Price: $5.50 reprinted in Harvard Business School Case in Macroeconomic Decision Making in the World Economy: Text and Cases by Michael G. Rukstad, The Dryden Press, 1986 


Balance of Payments: Accounting and Presentation - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Austin, Jane K. 

Description: Provides an overview of balance of payments accounting and analytical presentation of balance of payments data. Includes sample transactions to illustrate the application of the basic accounting principles and definitions of the standard balances. May be used with Kennedy and the Balance of Payments. 

Subject(s): Balance of payments; EC single market; Economic policy; International trade; Monetary policy Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-385-241), 13p, by David B. Yoffie 
Type: Note 
Publication Date: 8/8/83 
Product Number: 384005 
Length: 7p 
List Price: $5.50



Kennedy and the Balance of Payments, Exercise Worksheet - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Austin, Jane K. 

Description: Used to calculate the standard balances for the U.S. balance of payments in 1960. Subject(s): Balance of
payments; EC single market; Economic policy; International trade; Monetary policy Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note,
(5-385-241), 13p, by David B. Yoffie Type: Supplement (Note) Publication Date: 2/4/88 Product Number: 384006 Length:
1p List Price: $2.50



Kennedy and the Balance of Payments, Exercise Worksheet (Answers) - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Austin, Jane K. 

Description: Provides answers to the worksheet. 
Supplemental Material(s):Teaching Note, (5-385-241), 13p, by David B. Yoffie 
Publication Date: 2/4/86 
Product Number: 385243 
Length: 1p 
List Price: $2.50 


Economic Gains from Trade: Theories of Strategic Trade - HBS

Author(s): Kennedy, Robert E. 

Description: The theory of competitive advantage is one of the most widely accepted economic principles among economists. The theory, as well as substantial historical evidence, suggest that free trade raises national income, while government intervention in trade relations generally lowers a nation's wealth. In the last few years, however, new theories have led some commentators to question this conclusion. Based on research into imperfectly competitive industries, some of the new theoretical research suggests that it is possible to increase national wealth with specific types of government intervention in trade relations. The research is referred to as the New International Economics, or Strategic Trade theory. While interesting, these trade theories are often misunderstood and used inappropriately. This note introduces four strategic theories of trade. Also discusses several critiques of these theories. A rewritten version of an earlier note.  
Subject(s): Government & business; International trade; Macroeconomics; National competitiveness 
Type: Note 
Publication Date: 11/25/96 
Product Number: 796184 
Length: 6p 
List Price: $5.50



Note on Rules - HBS

Author(s): Spar, Debora 

Description: A central document for the Managing International Trade and Investment (MITI) course and its cases. Provides a conceptual framework for the course and a systematic way of analyzing the political circumstances that confront firms engaged in international trade and investment. Teaching Purpose: Designed to accompany any or all of the MITI materials. Provides a structural foundation for the course. 
Subject(s): Foreign investment; International business; International trade; Political risk 
Type: Note 
Publication Date: 3/31/99 
Product Number: 799013 
Length: 23p 
List Price: $5.50



Trade policy generally

Launching the Uruguay Round: Clayton Yeutter and the Two-Track Decision - Pew

David M. Kennedy [case] and Frederick W. Mayer [teaching notes]

In September 1986, U.S. Trade Representative Clayton Yeutter headed for the resort town of Punta del Este, Uruguay, determined to put the issue of liberalizing international trade in services on the agenda of the upcoming round of trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Yeutter had already rejected a compromise proposal to hold negotiations on services in some other, non-GATT forum. Yeutter was faced with a difficult choice: to break his word and accept the proposal, thereby alienating his allies, or to reject the proposal and alienate his influential opponents. This case is intended to support discussion of the formation of coalitions, the utility of bluff and brinkmanship, and the nature of compromise in multilateral negotiations. 144-92-R (case, text 11 pp.; teaching notes, text 5 pp.; published 1988)

ISBN: 1-56927-144-5



The New GATT Trade Round - Pew

Charles Pearson and Nils Johnson

Covering events through June 1986, this case describes the then-forthcoming round of international trade negotiations sponsored by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This case study uses simulation. Participants are divided into groups representing individual countries or country groups and then into subgroups representing a single country or special interests within a country. At three separate points, participants are required to discuss and negotiate among themselves and reach decisions or agreements in accordance with aims of the country or special-interest group they represent. This case lays a foundation for the exercise, but the simulation teaches. 115-86-O (case, text 59 pp.; teaching notes, text 8 pp.; published 1986) ISBN: 1-56927-115-1



Choices in U.S. Trade Policy - HBS

Author(s): Wells Jr., Louis T.; Sprague, Courtenay 

Description: Describes the moments leading to the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations and the outcome of those negotiations. Discusses some of the options facing the Clinton Administration with respect to its international trade policy. Teaching Purpose: To explore the advantages and disadvantages of global rules on economic issues as opposed to bilateral arrangements or unilateral actions on the part of individual governments.  
Subject(s): Government policy; International trade 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Global 
Case Time Frame Start: 1993 
Case Time Frame End: 1995 Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 6/5/96 
Product Number: 796117 
Length: 12p 
List Price: $5.50 



Negotiating to Launch Negotiations: Getting Trade in Services onto the GATT Agenda - Pew

Jonathan Aronson

Bargaining and coalition building were required to launch the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations in September 1986. Before substantive negotiations could begin, the United States and other countries had to agree on the form and agenda of the negotiations. This case illustrates how an entrepreneurial, creative bureaucrat can take an out-of-the-way issue, move it up the policy agenda, and get national leaders and the international community to address it. 125-92-R (Parts A & B: case, text 14 pp., appendices 18 pp., Part C : case, text 4 pp., appendices 18 pp.; teaching notes, text 6 pp.; price published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-125-9 



Uruguay Round of the GATT: Choices in U.S. Trade Policy - HBS

Author(s): Wells Jr., Louis T.; Brown, Valerie B. 

Description: Describes the history of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and the outcome. Summarizes the agreements on agriculture, services, intellectual property, and investment issues. Adds the unsettled issues on audiovisual products, and lists some options for U.S. trade policy. Teaching Purpose: Describes the internationally agreed rules on trade and explores the difficulties of extending agreements beyond the traditional areas of tariffs and quotas. 

Subject(s): Agriculture; International trade; Negotiations 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Global 
Case Time Frame Start: 1994 
Case Time Frame End: 1994 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 4/12/94 
Product Number: 794133 
Length: 26p 
List Price: $5.50


World Trade and the Uruguay Round of the GATT - IESE

AUTHOR Gual, J; Taylor, G 
ADDRESS IESE, Barcelona 

ABSTRACT This case explores the current agenda for international trade matters. The case describes the main issues at stake in the Uruguay Round negotiations as well as the positions of the main players involved. The case ends in May 1993 before the conclusion of the Uruguay Round and provides background information on international trade issues (GATT, dumping, regionalism, managed trade). 

SETTING International; 1993 TOPICS Country analysis; Economics; Exports; Imports; Common market; Foreign markets #YEAR 1994 #PAGES 18 pp REF_NO 194-026-1


Incidents in Trade Policy - HBS

Author(s): Wells Jr., Louis T.; Sprague, Courtenay 

Description: Discusses a series of incidents of conflict between the United States and foreign governments on trade. Teaching Purpose: To explore the role of global agreements versus bilateral arrangements and unilateral action in international trade.  
Subject(s): Government policy; International trade Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Global Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 11/14/97 
Product Number: 796140 
Length: 4p 
List Price: $5.50



World Trade Organization: Toward Free Trade or World Bureaucracy? - HBS

Author(s): Lodge, George C.; High, Jack 

Description: In January 1995, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) evolved into the World Trade Organization (WTO), which faced the task of implementing the recently approved Uruguay Round of international trade agreements. This case describes the development of GATT, and the principal issues negotiated during the Uruguay Round, including agriculture, textiles, and services. Also describes the controversy surrounding the creation of the WTO. 
Subject(s): Business conditions; Government & business; International trade Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Global 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 8/16/95 
Product Number: 795149 
Length: 17p 
List Price: $5.50 



Lexus and the USTR - HBS

Author(s): Quelch, John A. 

Description: Lexus executives and dealers in the United States are debating how to respond to the U.S. Trade Representative's announcement of 100% tariffs on 13 models of Japanese luxury imported cars. Teaching Purpose: Explores the marketing implications of changes in trade policy. 
Subject(s): Automobiles; International marketing; International trade; Pricing 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: automobiles 
Case Time Frame Start: 1995 
Case Time Frame End: 1995 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-596-069), 18p, by John A. Quelch, Christine Steinman 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 10/17/96 
Product Number: 595127 
Length: 7p 
List Price: $5.50 

  
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - HBS

Author(s): Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin; O'Sullivan, Mary 

Description: Provides an introduction to the key features of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), its history, and the Uruguay Round of negotiations. Special details on GATT principles and exceptions to GATT rules are included.  
Subject(s): International business; International trade 
Supplemental Material(s): Case Video, (9-794-520), 16 min, by Benjamin Gomes-Casseres 
Type: Note 
Publication Date: 3/11/93 
Product Number: 793099 
Length: 10p 
List Price: $5.50 


Trade politics

Thinking Locally, Acting Globally: Congressman Jim Walsh and the NAFTA Vote - Pew

Mary E. Lovely 

This case examines international, national, and local implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This case outlines the key provisions of NAFTA and describes the public's concerns about the effects of NAFTA on U.S. employment and wages. Focusing on New York State and Congressman Jim Walsh, this case shows how local politics and local concerns influenced the national vote. This case can be used to examine the variety of factors that influenced the NAFTA vote and to generate discussion of dislocation from and adjustment to trade liberalization. One of 5 best-selling Pew cases. 160-94-N (case, text 17 pp., appendices, 10 pp., teaching notes, text, 3 pp.; published 1994) ISBN: 1-56927-160-7


Market access

Beer Brawls: GATT "Settles" the Market Access Dispute Between U.S. and Canadian Brewers - Pew

Michael P. Ryan and Teresita Ramos-Soler

This retrospective case describes the complaints of U.S. brewers over Canadian government policies that restricted their access to the Canadian market. It describes the dispute settlement mechanism of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the efforts of both the U.S. and Canadian governments to resolve the dispute through GATT on terms favorable to their respective brewers. The case highlights several important characteristics of GATT trade dispute settlement and illustrates the political uncertainties associated with the application of GATT rules to subnational policies, including those of the provinces of Canada and the U.S. states. 721-96-N (case, text 10 pp.; appendices, 1 pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp.; published 1996) ISBN 1-56927-721-4


Brazilian Informatics and the United States: Defending Infant Industry Versus Opening Foreign Markets - Pew

John Odell and Anne Dibble 

In September 1985 President Reagan ordered an investigation of Brazil's program to promote a national computer industry that would restrict some United States companies' exports and investments. Reagan effectively threatened to retaliate against Brazil's trade unless Brazil made significant concessions on this issue. This case is useful in courses on negotiation, international political economy, international business, economic development, and international trade. The teaching notes provide a suggested written assignment and a comprehensive classroom discussion plan. 128-92-R (Part A: case, text 22 pp.; Part B: case, text 12 pp.; teaching notes, text 12 pp.; price; published 1992) ISBN: 1-56927-128-3


The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Cultural Industries - Pew

Annette Baker Fox

The idea of a Canadian-American free trade area suggests the economic efficiency of a North American market, untrammeled by obstacles from various political jurisdictions. But Canadians have never been willing to allow free trade to cover film, the performing arts, publishing (books and magazines in particular), and radio or television, seeking to maintain complete control over these industries. This case focuses on how this issue played out in the negotiation of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement, ratified in 1988. 137-88-O (case, text 20 pp.; teaching notes, text 4 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-137-2

The Marlboro Man and Japanese Import Policy Toward Cigarettes - Pew

Michael P. Ryan

This case examines some sources of U.S.-Japanese conflict, the American tobacco Companies' strategy for entry into Japan, USTR and 301 investigation procedures, and the ethics of the tobacco trade. 719-95-N (case, text 10 pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp.; published 1995) ISBN: 1-56927-719-2



Tomen Assesses Chemical Export Opportunities in Latin America - Pew

Michael P. Ryan
  
This retrospective case describes the approach of Tomen, one of Japans nine sogo shosha, or large, integrated trading companies, to assessing export opportunities for chemical exports in Latin America. It also describes the chemical business; offers salient economic, political, and social characteristics of the key Latin American countries; and provides a political-economy context for understanding the emerging markets phenomenon of the 1990s. This case is best used as an introduction to export design after discussing the relationship between corporate strategy and global competition. It is best followed with readings and studies regarding foreign market development (which includes detailed analysis of social patterns and consumer behavior as well as distribution channel issues), import barrier analysis, export logistics, and export financing. 723-96-N (case, text 11 pp.; tables 4 pp.; teaching notes, text 2 pp.; published 1996) ISBN: 1-56927-723-0

See also case on Romania and tariff negotiations under Developing countries


Trade sanctions

Layton Canada - HBS

Author(s): Spar, Debora; Ricciardi, Lygeia; Bures, Laura 

Description: In 1993, Layton Canada finds itself caught in an intractable political situation. As part of a global reorganization process, the firm has been transformed from a subsidiary of a Dutch parent corporation to a subsidiary of a U.S. parent. Now, if it continues with its usual practice of exporting electrical components to Cuba, it will violate U.S. export law. If it ceases, however, it will violate Canadian law. Teaching Purpose: To examine how politically motivated trade and export practices can have a major impact on firms engaged in global operations. Also explores the origins and motives of export restrictions and sanctions. A rewritten version of an earlier case.  
Subject(s): Business conditions; Canada; Conflict; International business; International trade; Legislation; Multinational corporations 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: electrical components 
Case Time Frame Start:1993 
Case Time Frame End: 1993 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-798-054), 14p, by Debora Spar 
Type: Case (Field) 
Publication Date: 12/19/95 
Product Number: 796108 
Length: 13p 
List Price: $5.50


Import relief/safeguards/textiles/VERs


B-W Footwear - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Burton, Stewart C. 

Description: As import penetration into the American footwear market reached 81% in 1986, B-W Footwear, along with all of its American competitors, was struggling. Supply lines were deteriorating, retailers and importers were gaining power, and the government had rejected two consecutive petitions for protection. Like all industries faced with comparative cost disadvantages in international competition, footwear firms such as B-W have to find new ways to compete. This case explores different survival strategies for managing comparative disadvantage. 

Subject(s): Competition; Corporate strategy; Footwear; Imports; International trade; Regulation 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: footwear 
Company Size: small 
Case Time Frame Start: 1986 
Case Time Frame End: 1986 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-389-061), 14p, by David B. Yoffie; Case
Video, (9-887-523), 16 min, by David B. Yoffie; Case Video, (9-887-549), 6 min, by David B. Yoffie 
Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 11/2/88 
Product Number: 387022 
Length: 23p 
List Price: $5.50


B-W Footwear: Interview with Robert Siff, President, and Lawrence Siff, Video - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B. 

Description: B-W Footwear's CEO and his son discuss questions of management succession and recent moves to bolster their profitability. 
Subject(s): Competition; Corporate strategy; Footwear; Imports; International trade; Regulation 
Type: Case Video 
Publication Date: 6/29/87 
Product Number: 887549 
Length: 6 min 
List Price: $100.00 

Is Mr. Spock Human? - HBS

Author(s): Enright, Michael J. 

Description: In 1994, the European Union Commission set out to harmonize trade restrictions across the Union. A
Pan-European quota was set on "toys representing animals of non-human creatures." Toys representing humans were not affected. The quota forced customs officials to answer the question: Is Mr. Spock, from the Star-Trek television series, human?  
Subject(s): China; EC single market; Europe; International trade; Toy industry 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: European Union Industry Setting: toys 
Case Time Frame Start: 1994 
Case Time Frame End: 1994 
Type: Case (Library)
Publication Date: 8/21/95 
Product Number: 796049 
Length: 4p 
List Price: $5.50 

Textiles and the Multi-Fiber Arrangement - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Austin, Jane K. 

Description: What happens to an industry with millions of employees that loses its comparative advantage? This note examines this question by looking at the global textile and apparel industry. With the Multi-Fiber Arrangement coming up for renewal in December 1981, the United States, Europe, and the developing world must decide how to divide the international textile market in the 1980s. The debate focuses on who wins and who loses from protectionism, and the advantages and disadvantages of free trade. 

Subject(s): Clothing; Developing countries; EC single market; Imports; International trade; Regulated industries; Textiles 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-385-294), 16p, by David B. Yoffie 
Type: Note 
Publication Date: 10/15/90
Product Number: 383164 
Length: 16p 
List Price: $5.50

Yunost Coat Factory and U.S. Protectionism - HBS

Author(s): Enright, Michael J. 

Description: In early 1995, Svetlana Gorchinskaya must decide how to react to the import quotas imposed by the Clinton Administration on coats from the Ukraine. This case explores the inconsistencies between the administration's stated aims of: 1) helping Ukraine reform its economy, and 2) promoting freer trade in textile and apparel products with its protectionist actions. 
Subject(s): Clothing; Competition; Eastern Europe; Exports; International trade 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Ukraine Industry Setting: apparel 
Number of Employees: 900 
Case Time Frame Start: 1995 
Case Time Frame End: 1995
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 2/6/96 
Product Number: 796118 
Length: 7p 
List Price: $5.50 



Searching for Trade Remedies: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry--1983 - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B.; Phelps, Richard 

Description: In 1983 the National Machine Tools Builder Association was predicting a declining market for the United States and rising imports. Machine tool manufacturers had to decide if they should ask the U.S. government for help, and if they did, which administrative channels offered the most promise. This case examines the competitive position of the U.S. industry in 1983 compared to Japan, Germany, and the newly industrialized countries; and, in conjunction with United States Trade Law, explores some of the governmental options that were available. 
Subject(s): Competition; Government & business; International trade; Machine tools; Multinational corporations Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States, Japan, Germany Industry Setting: machine tools 
Case Time Frame Start: 1983
Case Time Frame End: 1983 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-389-059), 15p, by David B. Yoffie 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 3/18/88 
Product Number: 388071 
Length: 15p 
List Price: $5.50



Machine Tool Industry - INSEAD

H. Landis Gabel and Damien Neven 

Case Writer: John Thomas

Explores the problems in the US machine tool industry and the trade conflict these problems have caused between the US and Japan. President Reagan must decide what action to take, on the basis of a case brought by the industry trade association against imports. Pedagogical Objectives: develop the topic of foreign industrial targeting.

Copyright: 1987 INSEAD-CEDEP

Also available: Teaching Note
Other languages: French


Protection for the Machine Tool Industry: Domestic and International Negotiations for Voluntary Restraint Agreements - Pew

Richard Hooley

In early 1983 the U.S. machine tool market experienced a rapid increase in imports of machine tools from Asia and Europe. To protect themselves, the U.S. machine tool industry requested the imposition of import controls through section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, permitting the U.S. president to restrain imports of commodities that threaten to impair the national security of the United States. This case provides an opportunity to view the domestic and international negotiations involved in the emergence of a policy of economic protection for an important U.S. manufacturing industry. 120-92-R (Part A: case, text 11 pp., appendices 14 pp.; Part B: case, text 2 pp.; teaching notes, text 5 pp., appendices 35 pp.; published 1987) ISBN: 1-56927-120-8


The Reagan Administration, the Auto Producers, and the 1981 Agreement with Japan - Pew

Simon Reich

The Voluntary Export Restraint Agreement on the Japanese automobile industry, instituted in 1981, placed a ceiling on the number of autos exported by Japanese producers to the United States. This case shows how even the largest countries in the international economy must negotiate while constrained by domestic and systemic pressures. This case also demonstrates the pedagogical value of having an independent way of deciding what constitutes a negotiated settlement. 119-92-R [Paired with Pew Case Study #150; #119 may be read first.] (case, text 15 pp.; teaching notes, text 4 pp.; published 1989) ISBN: 1-56927-119-4


Restraining Trade to Invoke Investment: MITI and the Japanese Auto Producers - Pew

Simon Reich

This case focuses on the struggle to control Japanese auto production. It describes the dynamic interaction between the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), Japanese auto producers, and the U.S. government and presents the Japanese dilemma in agreeing to the 1981 Voluntary Export Restraint (VER) Agreement. 150-92-N [Paired with Pew Case Study #119 which should be read first.] (Part A: case, text 8 pp.; Part B: case, text 5 pp.; Part C: case, text 3 pp.; teaching notes, text 2 pp.; published 1992) ISBN: 1-56927-150-X 


Restrictions on Japanese Auto Imports - KSG

Author(s): Jernigan, David/Scott,Esther/ Fenn,Dan/ Leone,Robert/ Knowlton,Winthrop

In January 1981, the US auto industry was losing billions of dollars, while the number of unemployed workers in the auto industry approached half a million. At the same time, imported autos-particularly from Japan-were enjoying an unprecedented share of the American market. As the economic situation worsened, calls for government intervention in the form of trade restrictions on Japanese autos were becoming increasingly vociferous. One of Reagan's first acts as president, therefore, was to commission a cabinet-level task force to make recommendations on the plight of the auto industry. This case provides background on the crisis in the US auto industry, and then focuses on the work of the task force and the ultimate decision to pursue a voluntary restraint agreement with Japan. It concludes with a description of the negotiations required to persuade the Japanese government to "volunteer" to limit sales of their cars in the US. This case was developed to consider the issues that
arise when public officials make policy for the private business sector. It may be used to analyze the process of advocacy, negotiation, and compromise in a democratic society. It serves also as an illustration of the utility of certain management concepts-particularly strategic and organizational capacity-in making policy for the industrial sector. 07.0 Pages: 22 Exhibits: Yes Date Published: 1/1/82



Zenith and the Color Television Fight - HBS

Author(s): Yoffie, David B. 

Description: Caught in the backwash of Japan's export strategy, Zenith cries foul and takes legal action to force the United States government to defend the company against what it considers illegal activities by the Japanese government and the electronics industry. Presents both sides of the arguments and illustrates the ways in which a company can be affected by governmental actions. Based on a case, no longer available, by J.W. Rosenblum. 

Subject(s): Antitrust laws; Electronics; Government policy; Imports; International trade 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States, Japan Industry Setting: consumer electronics 
Case Time Frame Start: 1977 
Case Time Frame End: 1977
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-792-006), 23p, by Willis Emmons 
Type: Case (Field) 
Publication Date: 4/23/86
Product Number: 383070 
Length: 17p 
List Price: $5.50


Harley-Davidson and Adjusting to the Costs of Free Trade - Pew

Beth Baltzan and Abigail Tate

This case examines Harley-Davidson's antidumping petition with the U.S. International Trade Commission against Japanese producers of motorcycles under Section 201 "Escape Clause" of the Trade Act of 1974, which allowed the company to reorganize and become competitive. 715-95-N (case, text 10 pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp.; published 1995) ISBN: 1-56927-715-X



Revving Up for Relief: Harley-Davidson at the ITC (A) and (B) - KSG

Authors: Don Lippincott, Joseph Kalt, Dorothy Robyn 

In September 1982, Harley-Davidson, the only remaining US-based motorcycle manufacturer, petitioned the International Trade Commission for temporary relief, in the form of steep tariffs, from high levels of Japanese heavyweight motorcycles and motorcycle components. Harley claimed that Japanese manufacturers had exported a great many more heavyweight motorcycles to the US than market demand warranted, and as a result were selling models at prices so low that Harley could not compete. Japanese cycle manufacturers countered that their products were not competitive with Harley cycles, which appealed to a different market segment, and that Harley's financial troubles stemmed from the 1981-82 economic downturn rather than foreign competition. The case documents the opposing claims of Harley and the Japanese manufacturers regarding (A) injury and (B) import relief. It is designed to provide a straightforward review of consumer and producer surplus, including concepts of deadweight loss, quasi-rents, and cross-elasticities. The case can also be used to examine the importance of market definition in a trade case, the tradeoffs between tariffs and quotas, and the implications of bankruptcy for jobs and capital. 625.0 + 780.0 Pages: 7 Exhibits: Yes Date Published: 1/1/86 Main Topics: Competition/Privatization, Economics, International Topics: Competition, Demand Elasticities, Incidence, International Supply and Demand, Trade


Korean Joggers - Pew

John Odell and David Lang

In April 1977 the United States asked South Korea and Taiwan to restrain their export of shoes to the U.S. market. This was the first time the United States used the formal Orderly Marketing Agreement to restrict the import of goods--other than textiles--from developing countries. This case demonstrates how weak states can successfully negotiate with strong states through the effective use of various tactics and bargaining strategies. 129-92-R (case, text 11 pp., appendices, 6 pp.; teaching notes, text 16 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-129-1 


See also Steel


Antidumping/CVD


Tecumseh, Matsushita, and Refrigeration Compressor Subsidies from Singapore - Pew

Michael P. Ryan
 
This case examines the strategic use of CVD (countervailing duty) policy by Tecumseh in its global competition with Matsushita as well as the Commerce Department investigation process under U.S. CVD law. 716-95-N (case, text 8pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp.; published 1995) 1-56927-716-6



Will the Real American Company Please Stand Up: Brother's Antidumping Counterattack on Smith Corona - Pew

Michael P. Ryan, Jeffrey J. Clark and Felipe Cruz

This case raises the public policy questions regarding the "nationality" of multinational enterprises by studying the fifteen year antidumping trade war conducted by type writer and word processor makers Brother and Smith Corona. 717-95-N (case, text 9 pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp; published 1995) ISBN: 1-56927-717-6



Flow Components: International Sourcing Strategy - HBS

Author(s): Enright, Michael J.; Kotchen, David T. 

Description: Flow Components, a U.S.-based manufacturer of stainless steel flanges, has undertaken an aggressive international sourcing strategy. The bankruptcy of a competitor that had followed a similar sourcing strategy provides an impetus to assess Flow Components' strategy. Teaching Purpose: Allows for the detailed assessment of a cost-based international sourcing strategy, including comparative cost information. May be used with Flow Components: Antidumping Suit.  
Subject(s): Australia; Imports; Industrial goods; International business; International trade; Sourcing 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: stainless steel flanges 
Case Time Frame Start: 1993 
Case Time Frame End:1993 
Type: Case (Field) 
Publication Date: 3/26/96 
Product Number: 796041 
Length: 18p 
List Price: $5.50 



Flow Components: Antidumping Suit - HBS

Author(s): Enright, Michael J.; Kotchen, David T. 

Description: Flow Components' international sourcing strategy runs into obstacles after competitors file an antidumping suit with the U.S. Department of Commerce and International Trade Commission. Teaching Purpose: Allows for a discussion of the interaction of trade laws and restrictions on international sourcing strategies, including decisions on dumping and determination of duties. 
Subject(s): Australia; Imports; Industrial goods; International business; International trade; Sourcing 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: stainless steel flanges 
Case Time Frame Start: 1993 
Case Time Frame End:
1993 Type: Case (Field) 
Publication Date: 3/19/96 
Product Number: 796042 
Length: 6p 
List Price: $5.50



Cemex and Antidumping - HBS

Author(s): Baron, David P.; Adams, Justin 

Description: Under the leadership of CEO Lorenzo Zambrano, Cementos Mexicanos, S.A. (Cemex) has become the largest cement producer in North America and the fourth largest in the world. As a component of its globalization strategy Cemex expanded into the United States by building terminals and exporting cement from Mexico. U.S. producers countered with an antidumping petition under Section 731 of U.S. trade law, complaining that they were injured by the imported cement. The case presents the situation in the cement market and the administrative process that resulted in a 58% duty on Cemex imports. Focuses on Cemex's strategy for addressing the antidumping petition and its aftermath. 

Subject(s): Imports; International business; International trade; Mexico; Strategy formulation 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Mexico, United States Industry Setting: cement 
Case Time Frame Start: 1989 
Case Time Frame End: 1992 
Type: Case (Field) 
Publication Date: 5/1/95 
Product Number: P4 
Length: 17p 
List Price: $5.50



Kanzen Berhad: The United States and Antidumping Duties - HBS

Author(s): Lecraw, Donald J.; Lim, Boon 

Description: In early 1992, Mr. Eu, managing director of Kanzen Tetsu Sdn. Bhd. (KTSB), a new Malaysian producer of stainless steel tubing, received a letter from KTSB's attorney in Washington, DC, informing him that the U.S. Specialty Tube Group had written to the U.S. president concerning stainless steel tubing imported into the United States from Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Malaysia at dumped prices that was causing injury to the U.S. industry. For the next year, Mr. Eu considered how he should respond to this threat, while at the same time increasing KTSB's exports to the United States so that KTSB could meet its sales and profit goals. In March 1993, Mr. Eu was informed that a formal antidumping action had been taken against imports of stainless steel tubing from Malaysia (and other countries). Mr. Eu is considering what he should do now, both to preserve KTSB's market in the United States and maintain alternative markets in other countries.  
Subject(s): Imports; International business; International trade; Political risk; Southeast Asia 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Malaysia Industry Setting: fabricated metal products
Company Size: mid-size
Case Time Frame Start: 1992 
Case Time Frame End: 1992 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note,
(897G02), 5p, by Donald J. Lecraw 
Type: Case (Field) 
Publication Date: 9/5/96 
Product Number: 97G002 
Length: 25p 
ListPrice: $5.50



Regional trade/Canada/NAFTA

European Community Enlargement and the United States - Pew

John Odell and Margit Matzinger-Tchakerian 

The European Community's (E.C.) 1986 decision to incorporate Spain and Portugal as members meant sharply raising barriers to U.S. feed grain exports to those two countries. Brussels maintained that enlargement of the E.C. would increase U.S. exports of industrial goods, providing adequate overall compensation. Washington insisted that adequate compensation had to benefit agriculture specifically, and a dispute erupted. This case covers the issue and concept of coercion. Students are provided with much of the flow of information that washed over the actual participants. 130-92-R (Part A: case, text 42 pp.; Part B: case, text 11 pp; teaching notes, text 7 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-130-5


U.S.-E.C. Trade Negotiations on the Accession of Spain and Portugal - Pew

Bradley B. Billings 

This case covers the trade dispute, nicknamed the Yuppie Trade War, that arose when Spain and Portugal joined the European Economic Community (E.E.C.) in January 1986. Students can use this case to develop their knowledge and understanding of (1) international trade law, (2) the economics of integration, (3) game theory as applied to trade disputes, and (4) trade negotiations. 147-93-R (case, text 9 pp., appendices 35 pp.; teaching notes, text 7 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-147-X 



Canada and Quebec: The NAFTA Question - Pew

John Kline and Nathan Ruff

This case study examines the complex interplay of political, cultural, economic, and business issues that surround the drive by separatist forces in Quebec to secede from Canada. The factual focus involves both public and private sector institutions that span local, national, regional, and international interests. The issues described are as contemporary as they are real. However, the case study posits a hypothetical scenario--a vote in Quebec to secede and subsequent negotiations with Canada on the modalities of separation--in order to help students clarify both the potential consequences of secession and the importance of actions and events leading up to the next real referendum vote in Quebec. Particular attention is paid to the North American Free Trade Agreement and how it might affect the outcome of Canada-Quebec negotiations should secession occur. Students of international affairs and international business will find much to discuss about business-government relations. 724-97-N (forthcoming November 1997; price $3.50) ISBN 1-56927-724-9



The U.S.-Canadian Free Trade Negotiations: Gaining Approval to Proceed - Pew

Glenn Tobin [case] and Susan Irving [teaching notes]

This case, the first in a two-part series (with case #142), involves U.S. preparations for the free trade negotiations with Canada and focuses on obtaining congressional approval for the talks. 143-89-O [Paired with Pew Case Study #142; #143 may be read first.] (Part A: case, text 10 pp., appendices 11 pp.; Part B: case, text 7 pp., appendices 4 pp.; Part C: case, text 5 pp.; teaching notes, text 6 pp.;published 1989) ISBN: 1-56927-143-7



The U.S.-Canadian Free Trade Negotiations: The Canadian Dilemma - Pew 

Vlad S. Jenkins

In August 1987, Canadian negotiators concluded yet another round in their fifteen months of talks with the United States aimed at reaching a free trade agreement. This case is the second part in a two-part series (Case #143 is the first) examining negotiations on the U.S.-Canada free trade agreement. This study is designed to encourage discussion of both the Canadian and the U.S. negotiating postures and how each nation's assessment of the other helped to define its negotiating stance. 142-93-R [Paired with Pew Case Study #143 which may be read first.] (case, text 27 pp., appendices 16 pp.; no teaching notes; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-142-9


U.S.-Canadian Softwood Lumber: Trade Dispute Negotiations - Pew

Charles F. Doran and Timothy J. Naftali

This case deals with the softwood lumber negotiations between the United States and Canada. This dispute represented a turning point in U.S.-Canadian trade relations in the post-1945 period. This study can be used for courses in American foreign policy, U.S.-Canadian relations in which trade disputes are examined, and seminars on bargaining and negotiation. 141-88-O (case, text 48 pp.; teaching notes, text 2 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-141-0


Canada Packers and the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement - HBS

Author(s): Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin; Wilson, Peter 

Description: Describes the situation facing Canada Packers as trade between Canada and the United States is liberalized following the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Canada Packers was Canada's largest food processing company, and was just acquired by Hillsdown, a U.K. concern. Describes the FTA and its impact on the Canadian and U.S. meat industries and provides industry-level data on economies of production and competition. 
Subject(s): Canada; Competition; Government policy; International business; International trade 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Canada Industry Setting: agribusiness 
Company Size: large 
Case Time Frame Start:1988 
Case Time Frame End: 1988
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-794-072), 23p, by Benjamin Gomes-Casseres 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 11/13/91 
Product Number: 391177 
Length: 22p 
List Price: $5.50 


Foreign Investment and Free Trade: Canada in the 1990s - HBS

Author(s): Spar, Debora; Young, Allegra 

Description: In order to boost Canada's faltering economy, Prime Minister Mulroney seeks more foreign investment. Traditionally, Canada has relied on foreign investment, but this has caused problems with Canadian nationalists. Since signing the Free Trade Agreement and negotiating the NAFTA, which promises national treatment for U.S. and now Mexican businesses, foreign investors may not come to Canada, but relocate in Mexico. Without this investment, it is not clear what will happen to Canada. 

Subject(s): Canada; Foreign investment; Foreign policy; International trade 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: Canada 
Supplemental Material(s): Supplement (Library), (9-795-127), 8p, by George C. Lodge, Marie Bell; Teaching Note, (5-794-038), 18p, by Debora Spar 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 10/27/94 Product Number: 793032 
Length: 24p
List Price: $5.50


Canada 1995: Big Debt, Slow Growth - HBS

Author(s): Lodge, George C.; Bell, Marie 

Description: Designed as a sequel to Foreign Investment and Free Trade: Canada in the 1990s. 
Subject(s): Canada; Foreign investment; Foreign policy; International trade 
Type: Supplement (Library) 
Publication Date: 4/18/95 
Product Number: 795127 
Length: 8p 
List Price: $2.50 


North American Free Trade Agreement: Free For Whom? - HBS

Author(s): Shapiro, Helen; Dininio, Phyllis 

Description: Mexico, the United States, and Canada have negotiated a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that would create the largest free trade zone in the world. The union would build on the three-year-old Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada. Proponents claim that NAFTA is a "win-win-win" situation, but its detractors argue that it would reduce wages, create unemployment, and generate environmental problems. NAFTA's easy ratification was called into question by the election of President Bill Clinton in the United States and the resignation of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney in Canada. 

Subject(s): Canada; Economic development; International trade; Labor unions; Mexico; Political risk 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: United States, Canada, Mexico 
Supplemental Material(s): Teaching Note, (5-792-059), 23p, by Helen
Shapiro Type: Case (Library)
Publication Date: 2/9/94 
Product Number: 792049 
Length: 30p 
List Price: $5.50 


Regarding NAFTA - HBS

Author(s): Spar, Debora; Stein, Elizabeth B. 

Description: In the aftermath of World War II, the countries of the industrialized world engaged in an unprecedented round of institution-building, through which historical barriers to international trade, especially tariffs, came tumbling down. The GATT has reshaped the environment of world trade to such an extent that international trade flows have exploded. Even as global trade has become more integrated, however, a second round of institutions, regional rather than global--has emerged. The most recent and largest of the major regional institutions, NAFTA, was signed on December 17, 1992, and took effect in early 1994. This case examines the effect of this radically new institutional context on three different firms, each representing a different industry and country. Teaching Purpose: Demonstrates the importance of regional institutions such as NAFTA and also the extent to which their impact and benefits vary widely across firms and industries. 
Subject(s): Foreign policy; International business; International trade 
Setting Information: Geographic Setting: North America Industry Setting: meatpacking, auto, electronics"
Case Time Frame Start: 1965 
Case Time Frame End: 1994 
SupplementalMaterial(s): Teaching Note, (5-798-122), 20p, by Debora Spar 
Type: Case (Library) 
Publication Date: 5/28/98 
Product Number: 797013
Length: 14p 
List Price: $5.50 



The North American Free Trade Agreement: a New Trade Block? - IESE

AUTHOR Gual, J; Vermeulen, V ADDRESS IESE, Barcelona 

ABSTRACT Describes the issues that were debated before the completion of the trade negotiations leading to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The position of the Mexican government and the implications for the Mexican economy are discussed, as well as the consequences for Canada. Similarly, the perspective from the US is also outlined. 

SETTING North America; 1991-1992 TOPICS Country analysis; Economics; Exports; Imports; Common market; Foreign markets #YEAR 1994 #PAGES 12 pp REF_NO 194-025-1 



NAFTA: Honda Motor Company or Free Trade in the Real World - Pew

Gunter Dufey and Michael P. Ryan

This case introduces key issues regarding the influence of the North American Free Trade Agreement on competitive strategies, especially through domestic content rules toward the automobile industry. This case also reviews the 1965 U.S.-Canada Auto pact and policies toward the automobile industry of the U.S.-Canada FTA and the government of Mexico. 718-95-N (case, text 8pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp.; published 1995) 1-56927-718-4

See also case on Volkswagen



Japan

Meeting the Japanese Challenge, 1969-71: Balance of Payments Problems Force the Nixon Administration to Act - Pew

Robert C. Angel

In 1971 the United States negotiated with Japan to secure the upward revaluation of the yen. This resulted in the first change in the dollar-yen relationship since the occupation, which led to widening economic strains. This case is an example of alliance management and exemplifies the use of pressure to secure results. 135-88-O (case, text 59 pp.; teaching notes, text 3 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-135-6


Shifting Winds and Strong Currents: George Bush Charts a Trade-Policy Approach to Japan

Michael J. Fratantuono - Pew

This case explores the Bush administration's formulation of trade policy objectives toward Japan in light of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, in which Congress hoped to take a more interventionist role in U.S. trade policy toward Japan. This case illustrates (1) the complex relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government on trade issues, (2) the link between aggressive unilateralism and multilateralism in formulating trade policy, (3) the distinction between micro- and macroeconomic causes of the trade imbalance between the U.S. and Japan, and (4) the manner in which the administration attempted to assuage the competing concerns of various stakeholders. This study is useful for both undergraduate and graduate courses in international economics, trade theory, and political economy. 153-93-N (Part A: case, text 14 pp., appendices 13 pp.; Part B: case, text 3 pp.; teaching notes, text 3 pp.; published 1993) ISBN: 1-56927-153-4


The Kodak-Fujifilm Trade Dispute - HBS

Author: Baron, David P.

The Eastman Kodak Company filed a market-opening petition under U.S. trade law alleging that practices in the distribution system for photographic film and paper in Japan blocked exports. Kodak accompanied its petition with an integrated market and nonmarket strategy intended to pressure the U.S. government to pursue vigorously its petition. The case provides substantial detail on the distribution system and photographic film industry in Japan, the trade dispute process, and the strategies of Kodak and Fuji Photo Film Company. 

Subject(s): Exports; Government & business; Imports; Japan; Multinational corporations; Political risk; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation 
Geographic Setting: United States, Japan 
Case Time Frame Start: 1995 
Case Time Frame End: 1995
Publication Date: 7/1/98 
Product Number: P17 
Length: 17p 
List Price: $5.50


Under Construction, Round I: U.S.-Japanese Negotiations to Open Japan's Construction Markets to American Firms,
1985-88 - Pew

Ellis S. Krauss

The issue of opening Japanese public works construction to the participation of American companies has been described as one of the "most contentious trade disputes" between the two countries. The fundamental issues were whether American firms would be able to bid on Japanese public works construction projects, what procedures would be used for bidding, and the likelihood that American firms would receive nondiscriminatory treatment and win contracts. This case examines the negotiating process involving major dimensions of bureaucratic conflict, communication and misperception problems, and domestic political pressures on both sides. 145-94-R (case, text 24 pp., appendices 5 pp.; teaching notes, text 8 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-145-3


Under Construction, Round II: U.S.-Japanese Negotiations to Open Japan's Construction Markets to American Firms, 1988-92 - Pew

Todd Cloud and David Wilsford

This case (the sequel to Pew Case Study #145) examines trade relations in the construction industry between the United States and Japan from 1988 to 1992. Two new challenges are examined: (1) the rejection of American construction contracts for the new Tokyo Bay bridge-tunnel project and (2) the discovery by the United States Navy that Japanese contractors had colluded to rig the bidding process for U.S. government contracts at the Yokosuka naval base. This case is intended to promote discussion of protectionism and free trade within the context of U.S.-Japan trade relations. 158-93-N [Paired with Pew Case Study #145, which may be read first.] (case, text 4 pp.; teaching notes, text 1 pp.; published 1993) ISBN: 1-56927-158-5

Developing countries

A Bureaucrat's Dilemma: Skirmish on the Front Lines of Romanian Agricultural Reform - KSG

Kirsten Lundberg

When a reform-minded economist joins Romania's Ministry of Agriculture, she expects to help move her nation toward market-based changes that will increase the production of food by reducing subsidies and tariffs. Instead, General Secretary Cristina Esanu, formerly with the World Bank, quickly confronts a dilemma. The terms of the release of a new round of World Bank assistance to Romania make new aid contingent on Romania's "progress" toward lower tariffs, generally considered to be protecting inefficient producers from outside competition. Esanu quickly learns that powerful political interests make further tariff reductions, in particular, very difficult to achieve. When the World Bank makes clear that it will ask that at least a symbolic five percent tariff reduction be implemented in order for Romania to receive new assistance, Esanu is asked by her superior--the Agriculture Minister--to take on a task about which she is deeply ambivalent: writing a memo to convince the World Bank that
tariffs should not be reduced. The case raises questions about how a public official can, and whether she should, compromise principles and pragmatic political considerations. 1507.0 Pages: 14 Date Published: 5/1/99 Main Topics: Development, Gender Issues, International Topics: Female Protagonist, International
Trade



International Negotiations on the Code of Conduct for Transnational Corporations - Pew

Thomas G. Weiss and Donald Lu 

The 1960s and especially the early 1970s witnessed a rapid increase in direct investment in the developing world by transnational corporations (TNCs). Recognizing the tremendous impact of this investment on small economies, the UN Economic and Social Council proposed that a code of conduct for TNCs be established. This case study, a simulation exercise, provides essential background material for (a) examining the search for consensus among parties with dissimilar perspectives and (b) examining the need to reconcile expectations with realities if international consensus is to be achieved. 117-94-R (Part A: case, text 7 pp., appendices 23 pp.; Part B: case, text 9 pp.; teaching notes, text 49 pp., appendices 23 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-117-8


An Irresistible Force Meets an Immovable Object: The United States at UNCTAD I - Pew

The purpose of the first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was to discuss trade problems relevant to the economic development of less-developed countries. It was a diplomatic defeat and embarrassment for the United States. What happened and why? This case introduces students to the phenomenon of multilateral negotiations, and is useful in exploring tactics available to large groups of poor, less powerful states for use in pressuring a large, powerful country. This study is meant for courses in North-South relations, foreign policy decisionmaking, and international negotiations. 108-92-R (case, text 17 pp.; teaching notes, text 3 pp.; published 1988) ISBN: 1-56927-108-9 Carol Lancaster

top

continue to next page