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paper was researched and written to fulfill the M.A. project requirement
for completing the Monterey Institute of International Studies’ Master
of Arts in Commercial Diplomacy. It was not commissioned by any government
or other organization. The views and analysis presented are those of the
student alone. Names of people, corporations, businesses and governments
are used only as examples in fictitious sample correspondence, statements,
etc. in order to depict a realistic, albeit fictional, scenario.
This does not represent any knowledge of these examples, nor does
it in any way represent an endorsement by an individual, corporation,
business or government.
more information about the Commercial Diplomacy program and the M.A.
project requirement, please visit www.commercialdiplomacy.org.
There are no easy solutions to
the question of how the international community can continue to liberalize
international trade and also do a better job of protecting workers from
exploitation and abuse. Any solution will need to account for the
divergent interests of multinational corporations, developing countries,
and developed country consumers—consumers who are becoming increasingly
concerned with workers rights.
The project explores potential
solutions to the trade-labor conundrum with a specific emphasis on
evaluating the potential of international labor standards certifications
such as the certification program initiated by the U.S.-based Council on
Economic Priorities’ Accreditation Agency (CEPAA). The project was
submitted to fulfill the master’s project requirement of the Monterey
Institute of International Studies’ Master of Commercial Diplomacy study
I am grateful to Ms. Maki Saito
Akabane, Research Consultant of the CEPAA, who is actively working to
promote the idea of certifications within the Japanese business community
and who helped me develop this project. In addition, Ms. Eileen Kohl
Kaufman, Executive Director of the CEPAA, kindly provided me the
opportunity to discuss with her my project and to learn about CEPAA’s
At the Monterey Institute,
Prof. William W. Monning, the advisor for my project, provided
encouragement at crucial points during the development of my ideas. Other
professors in the Commercial Diplomacy Program also provided assistance in
developing each component of the project, as well as my interest in the
topic. This work would not have been completed without their assistance
the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) 1999 ministerial conference in
Seattle, labor standards surfaced as one of the most contentious areas of
disagreement among WTO member countries. The clash between developing and
developed countries on this issue contributed to ministers’ failure to
reach consensus on the launch of a new round of trade negotiations. The
clash has also raised questions as to the institutional capacity of the
WTO to make further progress on trade liberalization. On one side, policy
leaders from developed countries are no longer willing to push for further
trade liberalization without also responding to the public’s growing
concern over trade’s negative impacts on labor and the environment. On
the other, developing countries protest any attempt to link international
labor standards to trade. Such a link, they contend, would cripple their
ability to participate successfully in the global economy because their
comparative advantage lies in their supply of cheap labor.
the Government of Japan (GOJ) is not currently willing to tackle the issue
of labor standards in international fora, Japan’s increasing imports of
labor-intensive products will force Japanese businesses (if not the GOJ)
to take actions in the future; consumers will demand it. Moreover, given
that Japan is the largest economic entity in the Asian region, it bears
special responsibility for improving labor conditions in the region.
Treatment of labor standards should become an issue under the country’s
trade and development policy.
and labor rights have become inexorably intertwined. In order to either
facilitate further trade liberalization or establish greater protection
for workers’ rights, the trade and labor rights communities will need to
find new solutions that simultaneously address both communities’
concerns. One potential solution is for businesses around the world to
voluntarily adopt a uniform and verifiable set of labor standards such as
the Council on Economic Priorities Accreditation Agency’s (CEPAA’s)
Social Accountability 8000 (SA 8000).
World War II, policy leaders have made great strides toward establishing a
system of rules for international trade—a system that facilitates the
expansion of trade by reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers to
international commerce. The working assumption has been that trade, in and
of itself, raises living standards and spreads wealth to all corners of
recent years, however, policymakers and private citizens have begun
questioning whether or how trade contributes to building civil societies,
and one of the primary focuses of this concern is worker rights. Recent
reports of worker abuse in developing countries have led many in the
developed world to believe that the international community should be
making efforts not just to facilitate trade, but also to protect the right
to fair and safe labor conditions.
date, there have been two noteworthy attempts to ensure that workers
around the world are treated fairly. The Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD) set forth guidelines for the treatment
of workers, and the International Labor Organization (ILO) established
conventions concerning worker rights. Neither has been widely accepted by
the international community, and both lack legal enforcement mechanisms.
international institutions’ capacities to improve labor standards
worldwide will take time. Developing countries will first need to build
further domestic capacity to enhance their labor practices; they are not
likely to accept an international standard anytime soon. In the meantime,
the international business community’s adoption of voluntary standards
could go a long way toward building labor standards worldwide. Voluntary
actions have the potential to establish de-facto standards without
threatening either business’ or developing countries’ commercial
8000 offers one possible standard that could be adopted on a voluntary
basis by businesses around the world. SA 8000 is based on a commercial
incentive structure, and it has already begun attracting attention in the
international community. As of January 2000, 31 factories and companies
worldwide had successfully obtained this new certification.
is currently promoting SA 8000 in Asia.
Japan should be a major focus of this effort. Within Asia, Japan is
the largest economic entity and the largest donor of development
assistance. It wields a great deal of political and economic influence in
the region. CEPAA should also take advantage of Japanese companies’
extensive presence in Asia.
CEPAA should develop a one-year program to develop and promote a labor
certification system for Japanese companies. CEPAA can use the United
Kingdom’s Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) as a model for formulating an
initiative in Japan. The initiative should combine the SA 8000 concept
with the trade and development policy of the GOJ. The components of the
one-year program should include:
Research on the relationship between labor standards and trade in
the Asian region;
Coalition building activities in Japan and overseas; and
Public relations and educational activities.
actions will work toward the goals of:
public and private sector acceptance of labor standards as economically
and socially desirable measures.
the number of business sites that use SA 8000 (including overseas
factories that supply Japanese corporations);
corporate sourcing practices in Japan;
the general public in Japan on the importance of labor standards;
labor standards on Japan’s trade and development policy agenda;
a model to spread SA 8000 in Asia; and
to a solution to the international conflict between trade and labor
Can international labor standards benefit the
development of civil societies? Or are such measures destined only to
create additional trade barriers? Developing countries, which have a
comparative advantage in cheap labor costs, oppose the idea of combining
labor standards with trade agreements. Doing so, they fear, would rob them
of their comparative advantage. Yet consumers in the developed world are
growing increasingly concerned that factories in developing and emerging
markets exploit workers. They are demanding improvements in working
CEPAA is currently promoting SA 8000 as an
alternative to attempts to link labor standards with trade rules. SA 8000
in no way encumbers free trade, yet it encourages companies to voluntarily
improve working conditions in their factories.
CEPAA is promoting SA 8000 in Asia because
labor standards in many Asian countries are weak. Within the region, Japan
is a logical first target. Because it is the largest economy in the region
(as well as the second largest in the world), introducing SA 8000 in Japan
has the potential to affect labor practices all over Asia. If Japanese
companies begin requiring their suppliers to meet basic labor standards,
the impact could be enormous. Moreover, because Japan is the largest donor
of official development assistance in the region, it has a great deal of
power to encourage Asian governments to develop their own labor laws and
Programs and the SA 8000
A variety of programs and activities have been
developed to protect labor standards. Some programs are conducted at the
multinational level. Others are voluntary actions initiated by private
companies. Current programs, however, have several defects. Multinational
standards including the ILO Conventions and the OECD Guidelines for
Multinational Enterprises are not legally enforceable. Many private,
voluntary actions, such as corporate codes of conduct and industry-based
labeling programs, are not transparent and often are expensive to verify.
SA 8000, by contrast, is transparent and
credible. It uses third-party auditors to verify labor standards
compliance just as ISO 9000 and 14000 verify compliance with quality and
Since the introduction of SA 8000, CEPAA has
conducted a series of workshops to introduce the standard to companies
around the world. As of January 2000, 31 companies and factories had
obtained the certification.
The strategy uses the United Kingdom’s
Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) as a model. A partnership between
government, business, labor unions, and NGOs, ETI has resulted in the
creation of a base code and social auditing program. The U.K. government,
including the Department for Trade and Industry and the Department for
International Development, provided the initial three years of funding for
The strategy is designed to be implemented
over one year during 2000 and 2001. Costs are estimated to be
approximately $950,000 (see Exhibit 3 for a detailed implementation
schedule and estimated budget).
This section describes the current state of labor issues worldwide, giving special attention to various private and public policy initiatives.
This section analyses the advantages and disadvantages of national and international labor standards initiatives, as well as private and commercial initiatives. It also considers the relationship between labor initiatives and the GATT/WTO agreements, and it examines governmental and business interests in Japan.
Domestic Strategy Paper
domestic strategy paper lays out a strategy for influencing the GOJ and
the public to become interested in labor policy reform. The domestic
strategy consists of 1) a research strategy, 2) a political and
legislative strategy, and 3) a media strategy.
International Strategy Paper
organizations can be instrumental in marketing SA 8000 within Asia and in
influencing trade and local labor policies throughout the region. The
international strategy paper lays out a strategy for CEPAA to gain the
cooperation of international organizations such as the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), the Asian Development
Bank (ADB), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Trade
Organization (WTO), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Negotiation Strategy Paper
negotiation strategy paper describes how negotiations concerning SA 8000
should be approached. The
strategy identifies all stakeholders, as well as their interests and
exhibits contain additional information and sample documents.
I. Trade and Labor Standards
Trade and Labor Standards
concerns about labor rights abuses have multiplied in recent years,
resistance to any linkage of labor standards with trade sanctions remains
1995, the World Bank drew attention to these labor issues by including a
chapter on public policy and labor standards in its World Development
Report. The chapter called for government and civil society intervention
to ensure the establishment and enforcement of adequate labor standards,
and it described the dangers of using trade sanctions to enforce labor
1996, trade ministers at the WTO’s Singapore Ministerial Conference
“renewed” their “commitment to the observance of internationally
recognized core labor standards,” but they also “reject[ed] the use of
labour standards for protectionist purposes, and agree[d] that the
comparative advantage of countries, particularly low-wage developing
countries, must in no way be put into question.”
recently, at the November 1999 WTO ministerial conference held in Seattle,
President Clinton called for labor standards violations to be made
actionable within the WTO. However, for the time being, Clinton’s
address seems only to have solidified the standoff between developed and
developing country members of the international trade organization.
Developing countries strongly oppose incorporating any labor standards
within the WTO framework.
the issue of trade and labor is not likely to go away anytime soon.
Indeed, concern about the impact of trade liberalization on civil society
has only grown in recent years as trade unions, human rights groups and
the media have focused attention on high profile companies’ failures to
provide decent wages and working conditions. Nike’s exploitation of
workers was the first and perhaps best known of these cases. The media has
also pursued stories about alleged abuses by Reebok, Levi Strauss, and
Disney, as well as stories about child and forced labor. There has been
renewed focus on the child labor that sustains Pakistan’s carpet
industry, and the ILO has instructed Burma to stop the use of forced
labor. The Seattle Ministerial only fueled activists’ fire by providing
them a high-profile event at which to voice their concerns.
Practices in Asia
Asian countries have stringent legal frameworks for upholding high labor
standards. Enforcement of these laws, however, is a different story. The
media has reported numerous examples of labor standards violations in the
1998, Reuters reported that about 27 million people work in the world’s
850 export processing zones and that these workers often earn low wages
and are subject to poor working conditions. The article quoted the ILO as
saying, “It is a regrettable feature of many zones that both male and
female workers are trapped in low-wage, low-skill jobs. They are viewed as
replaceable and their concerns do not receive sufficient attention.”
China has 124 export processing zones.
February 1999, The Economist
reported on an investigation that found that workers making Disney
products in a Chinese toy factory were forced to work up to 16 hours a
day, seven days a week and were paid almost no overtime.
to the Asia Times, a supplier to
the GAP forced workers in Saipan to work over 40 hours a week in unhealthy
working conditions and without overtime pay.
U.S. Department of State’s 1998 Human Rights Report noted that, within
China, “[T]here is a high rate of industrial accidents, with most of the
accidents occurring in the mining sector.” With respect to other
industrial sectors, the report stated that “many factories that use
harmful products, such as asbestos, fail not only to protect their workers
against the ill effects of such products, but also to inform them about
the potential hazards.”
State Department’s Human Rights Report also reported that some ASEAN
countries, such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam,
Laos, Burma and Cambodia, do not provide sufficient legal protection for
workers and human rights. In the Philippines, for example, the State
Department found that “violations of minimum wage standards were common.
Many firms hired employees at subminimum apprentice rates, although no
approved training was entailed in their production line work.”
In Thailand, says the report, “an estimated 240,000 to 410,000 (two to
four percent of children between the ages six and 14) work in urban
employment at particular risk of labor abuse.”
to the United Nations, about 70 percent of the child workers in the world
live in Asia. An ILO survey asserts that “one in five Asian children
between the ages of five and 14 are in the workforce” and that “the
number of children in the informal sector is growing.”
II. Labor Standards Definitions & Initiatives
is no consensus on what should be covered by labor standards. The ILO
identifies the following eight of its more than 150 labor conventions as
addressing “core” labor standards:
Labour Convention (1930)
these, the OECD has recognized only the following four conventions as
addressing “core” labor standards:
Labour Convention (1930)
World Bank has described the differences between core labor standards and
standards that should not be related to international trade. In its view,
core labor standards include freedom of association, the right to
collective bargaining, the elimination of forced labor, exploitative forms
of child labor, and discrimination; standards that are viewed as having no
relation to trade are minimum wage and health standards.
countries have ratified the ILO-defined core labor standards. However,
there is no relation between ratification of core labor standards and
actual protection of worker and human rights. Many developing countries
have signed more of the conventions than the United States (which has
signed just four).
1977, the ILO governing body adopted the Tripartite Declaration of
Principles Concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, which
provides guidelines for MNEs, governments, employers and workers in the
areas of employment, training, conditions of work and life, and industrial
In June 1998, by adopting the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and
Rights at Work, all ILO members countries renewed their commitments to
respect and promote in good faith the right to freedom of association and
collective bargaining, the elimination of forced or compulsory labor, the
effective abolition of child labor, and the elimination of discrimination
with respect to employment.
number of other institutions have attempted to promote labor standards.
Like the ILO conventions, none of these involve enforceable standards:
OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises address global corporate
activities—both the morality of corporate activities, as well as the
protection of core labor standards. Since their adoption in 1976, the
Guidelines have been revised several times. (The latest revision was in
There is no mechanism for enforcing the Guidelines, and they only cover
OECD countries. OECD countries also tried to address labor standards in
the context of negotiations on the Multilateral Agreement on Investment,
but these efforts were shelved with the negotiations.
the first WTO ministerial conference in Singapore in 1996, ministers
declared that the organization would survey the relationship between trade
liberalization and labor standards and also that labor standards should
not be used as protectionist measures. The WTO declared that it would
cooperate with the ILO to secure labor standards related to world trade.
about the international inequalities that are growing with globalization,
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) stated in its 1999 Human
Development Report that “multinational corporations need to be brought
within the frame of global governance, not just the patchwork of national
laws, rules and regulations.”
The organization suggested social auditing as a possible measure for
securing secure labor standards.
International also has put forth a set of human rights principles for
developed-country efforts to promote workers’ rights in developing
countries include the Clinton Administration’s Apparel Industry
Partnership (AIP) and the United Kingdom’s Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI).
established a code of conduct for apparel factories that produce products
for export to the United States.
The program was initiated at the request of human rights groups and labor
unions with the goal of protecting worker rights in the Caribbean. With
governmental assistance, the U.S. apparel industry has been cooperating in
purchasing only goods produced by factories that meet AIP standards.
According to a CEPAA officer, however, AIP is not working very well
because factories do not want to meet the AIP standards, which they see as
is an NGO that encourages companies to consider ethics.
The United Kingdom’s Department for International Development and
Department for Trade and Industry both participate in ETI board meetings.
230 ethical conduct programs have been established by private
organizations in various countries to promote labor standards
(see Exhibit 10 for examples). Many of these rely on companies’
commitments to follow codes of conduct in their business activities.
to one author, “codes of conduct are written statements of principle or
policy intended to serve as the expression of a commitment to particular
enterprise conduct.” Codes of conduct can be
separated into two categories: operational codes and model codes. The
first are codes that are actually applied to business operations of
companies that trade and invest internationally. The second are generic
models that are not themselves enforced. The AIP code of conduct, which is
enforced via independent monitoring, is an example of an operational code.
The ILO Conventions and the United Nations Declaration for Human Rights
are both model codes that are not enforced.
8000’s code of conduct is based on the ILO Conventions and UN
Declaration, but it includes a monitoring system to verify that companies
comply with it.
Labeling and Investor Initiatives
III. CEPAA and SA 8000
Council on Economic Priorities Accreditation Agency (CEPAA) is an
affiliate of the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP), an American public
interest research institution. CEP has partners around the world,
including in Japan where it works with the Asahi Cultural Foundation (ACF),
an affiliate of Asahi Shimbun (one of the largest newspaper companies in
Japan). CEP established CEPAA and developed SA 8000 after learning through
its studies that corporate internal codes of conduct often don’t work
very well. According to CEP, internal codes “tend to be highly
inconsistent and expensive and inefficient to monitor because they are not
well defined and are often not monitored by trained auditors. Such codes
and their monitoring systems also tend to be weak on audibility and
sensitivity to local laws and customs.”
8000 sets out both a standard for workplace conditions and a system for
independently verifying factories’ compliance with the standard. As
CEPAA explains, both the standard and the verification system draw from
established business strategies for ensuring quality (such as those used
by the International Standards Organization in ISO 9000 and ISO 14000).
A variety of professionals, including corporate executives, NGO and labor
union representatives, and university professors participated in the
taskforce that developed the standards. (See Exhibit 2 for a list of CEPAA
advisory board members.)
8000 covers nine core areas:
categories are based on the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights of
1947, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO
labor standards conventions.
are several advantages of the SA 8000 system:
requires verification by CEPAA-accredited, third-party auditors every six
months. Currently five corporations are accredited as auditors (SGS-ICS of
Switzerland, DNV of Norway, BVQI and Interteck Testing Services (ITS) of
the United Kingdom, and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) of the United
is inexpensive relative to the cost of establishing a social auditing
program from scratch or implementing an in-house verification system.
sets standards for and verifies companies’ management systems for
establishing and maintaining appropriate working conditions.
provides SA 8000 compliant companies with a certification that can be used
as a marketing tool and therefore provides an incentive for company
compliance. SA 8000 certification can be displayed in catalogues and
advertisements, and on business cards and posters, etc. It will become
increasingly valuable as it becomes more widely recognized.
of January 2000, 31 companies and factories around the world has obtained
the SA 8000 certificate.
Most companies interested in the certificate are labor-intensive
manufacturing businesses. The Avon Corporation obtained the certificates
for their New York and Ohio factories in the United States. Dole Foods has
applied for certification to prove that its labor policies are socially
responsible. In at least one case, that of Toys-R-Us (a U.S. toy
manufacturing company), the company requires that its contracting
suppliers get SA 8000 certification.
is now trying to gain worldwide recognition and acceptance of the new
certificate. It is focusing its efforts on Southeast Asia, Central
America, and East Asia. Since starting the SA 8000 program, workshops have
been held in Asia, Eastern Europe and Central America.
date, no Japanese companies have been SA 8000 certificatied.
However, some corporations in the textile and clothing industries,
cosmetic industries, and leather industries are interested in obtaining
certification in order to improve their brand image and head off the risk
of being associated with poor labor practices.
October 22, 1999, a forum was held in New York to introduce SA 8000 to
Japanese corporations. In early December, representatives from the
Keidanren (the Japanese Federation of Economic Organizations) visited
CEPAA to ask about SA 8000.
IV. Japan and Its Influence in Asia
Trade within Asia
large portion of these imports from Asian countries is comprised of goods
that require labor-intensive production processes. In 1997 some US$ 4.2
billion (about 70) percent of Japan’s total US$ 5.8 billion textile
imports came from Asian countries. China alone contributed about 45
percent of Japan’s total imports of textiles and about 33 percent of
textile imports from Asia.
Clothing import statistics were similar with China contributing about 60
percent and the entire Asian region contributing about 80 percent of
Japan’s clothing imports.
demand for labor-intensive products has stimulated imports from the Asian
region. For example, Japan imports large quantities of furniture from
Asian countries. Thailand, other ASEAN countries and China dominate
Japan’s wooden furniture imports; Indonesia and the Philippines account
for most of Japan’s imports of rattan furniture.
Corporate Investment in Asia
retailing market provides an indicator of the Japanese purchasing power in
Asia region. Of the top 35 retailers in Asia, 33 are Japanese. Two
Japanese companies are ranked on the global 500 revenue index of general
merchandize companies; Daiei Inc. is ranked as 120, and Takashimaya Co.,
Ltd at 431).
Standards and Japanese Corporate Behavior
recent survey on Japanese corporate behavior revealed that corporate
interest in ethics is not strong. According to one review of Japanese case
studies, “only 30 percent of Japanese large corporations have written
codes of ethics and more than 70 percent do not have any system for
monitoring ethical behavior.”  There are plenty of cases in which Japanese
corporations have not met adequate labor standards.
Watch, a project of the Transnational Resource and Action Center (TRAC),
has reported that the U.S. affiliate (Jefferson, Ohio) of Kobe Steel, a
major Japanese steel corporation, does not provide safe working conditions
or adequate wages. According to the report, “An overwhelming number of
production workers suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome, with many already
having surgery on both wrists. Wages in Jefferson are 25-50 percent less
than in Cleveland.”
harassment and discrimination against minority groups in Japan are
corporations, however, are willing to at least establish codes of conduct.
For example, the Omron Corporation, a Japanese electronics device company,
has ten ethical conduct rules:
and free competition
1992, the Japanese Federation of Economic Organizations (also known as
JFEO or the “Keidanren”) put forth a set of principles on ethical
corporate conduct. Labor standards, however, are not clearly mentioned in
Policy on International Labor Standards
Japan has indicated its interest in labor standards within the Asia
Pacific region. At the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in
Osaka, the GOJ, along with South Korea and the United States, expressed
the necessity of supporting labor standards.
Moreover, several of Japan’s ODA programs focus on improving labor
standards in Asia. For example, in November 1999, the government will host
a seminar on labor policy for the Asian countries. The World Bank, the ILO,
and the Ministry of Labor of Japan (MOL) are all involved in the seminar.
Japan has also provided technical assistance to Asian countries to
help them strengthen their laws and legal enforcement systems. Most
recently, the ADB announced a technical assistance program to help China
develop a legal and regulatory framework appropriate for a market economy.
Japan provided the funding for this initiative.
GOJ is strongly committed to providing development assistance to
developing countries. According to the OECD’s Development Assistance
Committee (DAC) report, Japan is currently the largest provider of
development assistance. It contributed about 9.6 billion dollars in 1998.
The second ranked country, the United States, contributed 6.4 billion
The GOJ’s strong commitment to development assistance is embodied in its
1992 Official Development Assistance Charter, which states that “full
efforts should be made to promote democratization and the introduction of
a market-oriented economy and to secure basic human rights and freedoms in
the recipient country.”
The latest ODA plan focuses on East Asia and calls for the development of
a cooperative relationship with the private sector and NGOs.
to Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) statistics, China and the ASEAN
member countries are the major recipients of the ODA’s financial and
technical assistance. Japanese presidents have
headed the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for the past ten years.
 CEPAA is an affiliate of the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP), a public interest research institute that studies corporate governance. CEPAA’s advisory board consists of businessmen, trade union representatives, academics, and representatives from non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
 “Singapore Ministerial Declaration,” World Trade Organization, WT/MIN(96)/DEC/W, 1996.
 Reuters, “Workers ‘trapped’ in trade zones Poor conditions typical of exports areas, UN says,” The Toronto Star, 1998.
 “Business ethics. Sweatshop wars,” The Economist, February 1999.
 Farhan Haq, “The GAP Targeted Over Saipan Workers’ Rights,” Asia Times Online, March 6, 1999. <http://www.atimes.com/oceania/AC06Ah02.html>
 The U.S. Department of State, 1998 Human Rights Report. <http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/>
 UN Wire, “Child Labor: ILO To Explore Problem At Thailand Conference.”
 Trade, Employment and Labour Standards: A Study of Core Workers’ Rights and International Trade, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris 1996.
 “Public Policy and Labor Standards,” The World Development Report 1995, World Bank, Washington D.C.
 Trade, Employment and Labour Standards: A Study of Core Workers’ Rights and International Trade, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris 1996.
 Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.
 The Human Development Report 1999, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York.
 The Human Rights Principles for Companies. Amnesty International.
 “Apparel Industry Partnership.” The Lawyers Committee For Human Rights (LCHR).
 Personal communication with Eileen Kaufman, February 7, 2000.
 “Ethical Trading Initiative.” The Social Development Department,
 Jannelle Diller, “A social conscience in the global marketplace? Labour dimensions of codes of conduct, social labeling and investor initiatives,” The International Labour Review, Vol. 138 (1999), No. 2.
 The Council on Economic Priorities Accreditation Agency (CEPAA).
 ISO 9000 is a standard for quality management systems. ISO 14000 sets out standards for corporations’ environmental protective measures.
CEPAA Update, November 1999.
 Personal communication with Maki Saito, September 1999.
 The International Monetary Fund (IMF), Directory of Trade Statistics Yearbook 1996, Washington D.C.
 World Trade Organization, “Textile imports of selected economies by region and supplier,” The WTO Annual Report 1998, Geneva.
 Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). “Clothing imports of selected economies by region and supplier,” 1997. <http://www. jetro.go.jp/it/e/pub/focus/97>
 Ibid. “The Japanese Market for Furniture.”
 The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), The World Investment Report 1998, Geneva.
 The International Labour Organization (ILO), “Globalization and rest... employment and working conditions.”
 Nakano Chiaki, “Attempting to institutionalize ethics: Case studies from Japan,” The Journal of Business Ethics, Dordrecht, February 1999.
 Corporate Watch, Action Alerts, “Stop Union Busting by Kobe Steel in Ohio,” February 19, 1999. <http://www.corpwatch.org/trac/corner/alert/kobe.html>
 Nobuo Tateishi,
“Business & Society: New Perspective,” The International Institute for Labour Studies of the
 Nigel Haworth and Stephen Hughes, “Scaling the Great Wall: China, the International Labour Movement and APEC Integration,” Center for Labor Research and Education, The Institute of Industrial Relations, The University of California, Berkeley, <http://www.violet.berkeley.edu/~iir/clre/programs/greatwall.html>
 Nikkei Shimbun, “Forum on Labor Policy in Tokyo,” September 1999.
 The Asian Development Bank (ADB), “ADB help Improve Legal System In People’s Republic of China,” ADB Online, October 26, 1999. <http://www.adb.org/news/1999/nr100-99.asp>
 The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), DAC Report 1999, Paris.
 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter.
 Nikkei Shimbun, “Stress on the rehabilitation of the East Asia,” July 11, 1999.
 MOFA, The Japan ODA Report 1996.